Hillary Clinton fainting at the 9/11 memorial this weekend has raised concern and speculation over possible causes. There are three causes of fainting.
With their heads soaring 60 feet above the ground, Sauropods were gigantic animals, about the same height and length of The White House. Imagine the tremendous bone strength and muscle force required to support their 65 ton mass, equivalent to the crushing weight of a stack of 30-40 automobiles. The necks of long-necked Sauropods were 30 to 40 feet long (10-12 m), the length of the extended arm of the Statue of Liberty bearing the torch (42 feet). A massive heart would have been required to produce the 700 mm Hg pressure needed to pump blood to the Sauropod’s head; the same pressure that is exerted on your body by diving in the ocean to a depth of 30 feet (10 m). It has been calculated that the left ventricle of the dinosaur’s heart would have to weigh 2 metric tons to pump blood that high. That is 15 times heaver than the left ventricle of whales. Such an enormous heart muscle would have consumed 64% of the dinosaur’s energy (basal metabolism), leaving the creature little energy for everything else.
Tennis star Maria Sharapova has admitted to using the performance-enhancing drug meldonium, which boosts brain and body power and endurance. Here’s how it works.
Meldonium was developed for the Soviet military and given to Soviet soldiers in the Afghanistan invasion. The drug increases endurance for physically and cognitively demanding tasks when the body is under physiological stress. Also known as mildronate, the drug has since been used for various medical purposes, notably for treating cardiac conditions and diabetes, but also for many neurological disorders including stroke, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s disease, and others. The drug is not available for use in the United States.
On September 23, 1976, while the nation’s attention was focused on the battle between Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter for President of the United States, a 42-year-old woman half way around the world was engaged in a personal battle. Outside the limelight of world view, her struggle for life in a remote third world country marked the crossing of a threshold for our species. Rapidly others from her region began to appear in hospital with the same symptoms: fever, sore throat, muscular pains, vomiting, diarrhea, and most shockingly breakdown of the body’s capillaries and small blood vessels, causing internal bleeding. The whites of their eyes turned red with blood seeping into tissue. A disturbingly high percentage of hospital personnel quickly developed the same fatal disease. This was a highly contagious and highly fatal disease unlike any other known.
New research presented at the Society for Neuroscience meeting in San Diego shows that blind people can understand speech at ultrafast rates, well beyond what a sighted person can comprehend. Using brain imaging, the researchers discovered how they were able to do this. The parts of the brain that process hearing get re-wired to the part of the cerebral cortex that normally handles vision. This is explained in my post on the Scientific American website, but Scientific American was not able to include the audio clip of what such high-speed speech sounds like. Have a listen here, and read the story at Scientific American News on-line: “Why can some blind people process speech far faster than sighted persons: www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=why-can-some-blind-people -process